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Nine men matched for age and with similar plasma IGF-I concentrations served as controls. Healthy men who were 61 or older and living in the community were recruited through newspaper advertisements followed by an interview.

Entry criteria available from the authors on request included body weight of 90 to percent of the standard for age, the ability to administer growth hormone to oneself subcutaneously, and the absence of indications of major disease.

Ninety-five men who answered the advertisements met criteria that could be ascertained by interview. Their plasma IGF-I concentrations were then determined twice at an interval of four weeks.

Consistent with the results of a previous study, 13 the plasma IGF-I values in these men ranged from to U per liter, with an average of U per liter.

These 33 men were then further evaluated by a medical-history taking, physical examination, differential blood count, urinalysis, blood-chemistry tests, chest radiography, and electrocardiography.

Twenty-six subjects 1 black and 25 white met all the entry criteria and were enrolled in the month protocol summarized in Table 1 Table 1 Schedule of Tests during the Base-Line and Treatment Periods.

The men were seen at regular intervals and tested as shown in Table 1 during the first week of the first, third, and sixth months of the base-line period.

Five men dropped out of the study during these six months four for personal reasons and one because carcinoma of the prostate was detected.

At the beginning of the seventh month, the 21 men who had completed the base-line period were randomly assigned to group 1 growth hormone group or group 2 control group in a ratio of 3 to 2.

The randomization table was generated by a computer program such that in each group of five men, three would be assigned to the growth hormone group and two to the control group.

All 21 men 12 in group 1 and 9 in group 2 completed the treatment period and constitute the study group for this report. During the first week of the seventh month, the men in group 1 were instructed in the subcutaneous administration of recombinant biosynthetic human growth hormone 2.

The initial dose was 0. A sample of venous blood for plasma IGF-I assay was obtained each month 24 hours after a growth hormone injection.

The men in group 2 received no injections. The schedule of tests for both groups during the treatment period is shown in Table 1.

At the start of the base-line period, the project dietitian instructed each man to follow a diet that furnished 25 to 30 kcal per kilogram.

The distribution of kilocalories among protein, carbohydrate, and fat was approximately 15 percent, 50 percent, and 35 percent, respectively.

At each scheduled visit shown in Table 1. The men were told not to alter their lifestyles including their use of tobacco or alcohol and their level of physical activity during the month study period.

The study protocol was carried out with the informed consent of each subject and with the approval of the human-research committees of the Medical College of Wisconsin, the Chicago Medical School, and the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in North Chicago and Milwaukee.

The methods used to measure each response variable and the locations where the tests were performed are described in Table 1.

The interassay coefficients of variation for the response variables were as follows: plasma IGF-I, 7. P values based on two-tailed, matched-pair t-tests were calculated for the comparisons between the 6-month and month values in group 1 and group 2.

In addition, for each response variable the 6-month value was subtracted from the month value to represent the change in each subject. P values based on two-tailed, unequal-variance, independent-sample t-tests were then calculated for the comparison of the changes in response variables between groups 1 and 2.

All the men remained healthy, and none had any changes in the results of differential blood count, urinalysis, blood-chemistry profile, chest radiography, electrocardiography, or echocardiography during the month protocol.

Eight of the 12 men in group 1 required no adjustment in their initial dose of growth hormone. Two required an upward adjustment of 25 percent, and two required a downward adjustment of 25 percent.

The mean plasma IGF-I concentration in group 2 remained in the range of to U per liter throughout the base-line and treatment periods.

There was no significant change in weight in either group. In group 1, several response variables had changed significantly after 12 months.

Lean body mass and the average density of the lumbar vertebrae increased by 8. The sum of skin thicknesses at four sites increased 7.

The small average change in lumbar vertebral bone density only 0. The bone density of the radius and proximal femur and the ratio of the height of the alveolar ridge to total mandibular height did not change significantly.

In group 2 none of these variables changed significantly. The 21 men studied were representative of the approximately one third of all men 60 to 80 years old who have plasma IGF-I concentrations of less than U per liter as compared with a range of to U per liter in healthy men 20 to 40 years old.

Furthermore, our entry criteria focused the study on an overtly healthy subgroup of older men. In the absence of obesity, 4 below-normal weight, 20 or liver disease, 21 a plasma IGF-I concentration of less than U per liter in older men generally signifies that they secrete very little growth hormone.

We did not do this, but Ho et al. Most of the IGF-I plasma is bound to these proteins, but their concentrations vary little in healthy people who eat a normal diet.

In the 12 men in group 1, initially low plasma IGF-I concentrations were raised to the normal range for young adult men by the dose of growth hormone administered, with no evidence of tachyphylaxis or hormone resistance.

The dose, approximately 0. We conclude that in aging men with low plasma IGF-I concentrations hepatic responsiveness to human growth hormone is not impaired, and the decline in plasma IGF-I concentrations in such men results from growth hormone deficiency rather than growth hormone resistance.

The increase in plasma IGF-I levels that occurs when growth hormone is administered to children with growth hormone deficiency reflects not only augmented hepatic production of IGF-I, but also increased production of one of the binding proteins that transport IGF-I.

At the beginning of our study, adverse reactions to human growth hormone were thought to be unlikely because physiologic doses were being used.

Furthermore, similar or larger doses have not caused undesired reactions in children or young adults. The magnitude of the increases in lean body mass and the decreases in adipose-tissue mass 8.

Until now, the evidence for such a conclusion came only from short-term nitrogen-balance experiments. Salomon et al.

In rodents, the increase in lean body mass in response to growth hormone is due to increases in the volume of skeletal muscle, skin, liver, kidney, and spleen.

The reduction in adipose-tissue mass when children with growth hormone deficiency are treated with human growth hormone is associated with a redistribution of adipose tissue from abdominal to peripheral areas.

Biosynthetic human growth hormone had no detectable effect on the bone density of the radius or proximal femur in the aging men, but it increased the density of the lumbar vertebrae by about 1.

Although the decrease in bone density with advancing age in men may be due in part to diminished secretion of growth hormone, 1.

A similar interpretation applies to the lack of increase in the mandibular-height ratio. What organs are responsible for the increase in lean body mass, and do their functional capacities change as well?

Only when such questions are answered can the possible benefits of human growth hormone in the elderly be explored.

Since atrophy of muscle and skin contributes to the frailty of older people, the potential benefits of growth hormone merit continuing attention and investigation.

We are indebted to Dr. Milwaukee D. North Chicago A. Rudman D. Growth hormone, body composition, and aging. Web of Science Medline.

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Journal of the Korean Medical Association Downloaders send an announcement using stopped when they cease downloading.

Tracker responses are bencoded dictionaries. If a tracker response has a key failure reason , then that maps to a human readable string which explains why the query failed, and no other keys are required.

Otherwise, it must have two keys: interval , which maps to the number of seconds the downloader should wait between regular rerequests, and peers.

Note that downloaders may rerequest on nonscheduled times if an event happens or they need more peers. More commonly is that trackers return a compact representation of the peer list, see BEP If you want to make any extensions to metainfo files or tracker queries, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure that all extensions are done compatibly.

It is common to announce over a UDP tracker protocol as well. Peer connections are symmetrical. Messages sent in both directions look the same, and data can flow in either direction.

The peer protocol refers to pieces of the file by index as described in the metainfo file, starting at zero. When a peer finishes downloading a piece and checks that the hash matches, it announces that it has that piece to all of its peers.

Connections contain two bits of state on either end: choked or not, and interested or not. Choking is a notification that no data will be sent until unchoking happens.

The reasoning and common techniques behind choking are explained later in this document. Data transfer takes place whenever one side is interested and the other side is not choking.

Interest state must be kept up to date at all times - whenever a downloader doesn't have something they currently would ask a peer for in unchoked, they must express lack of interest, despite being choked.

Implementing this properly is tricky, but makes it possible for downloaders to know which peers will start downloading immediately if unchoked.

Connections start out choked and not interested. When data is being transferred, downloaders should keep several piece requests queued up at once in order to get good TCP performance this is called 'pipelining'.

On the other side, requests which can't be written out to the TCP buffer immediately should be queued up in memory rather than kept in an application-level network buffer, so they can all be thrown out when a choke happens.

The peer wire protocol consists of a handshake followed by a never-ending stream of length-prefixed messages.

The handshake starts with character ninteen decimal followed by the string 'BitTorrent protocol'. The leading character is a length prefix, put there in the hope that other new protocols may do the same and thus be trivially distinguishable from each other.

All later integers sent in the protocol are encoded as four bytes big-endian. After the fixed headers come eight reserved bytes, which are all zero in all current implementations.

If you wish to extend the protocol using these bytes, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure all extensions are done compatibly. Next comes the 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file.

If both sides don't send the same value, they sever the connection. The one possible exception is if a downloader wants to do multiple downloads over a single port, they may wait for incoming connections to give a download hash first, and respond with the same one if it's in their list.

After the download hash comes the byte peer id which is reported in tracker requests and contained in peer lists in tracker responses.

If the receiving side's peer id doesn't match the one the initiating side expects, it severs the connection. That's it for handshaking, next comes an alternating stream of length prefixes and messages.

Messages of length zero are keepalives, and ignored. Keepalives are generally sent once every two minutes, but note that timeouts can be done much more quickly when data is expected.

All non-keepalive messages start with a single byte which gives their type. The possible values are: 'choke', 'unchoke', 'interested', and 'not interested' have no payload.

Its payload is a bitfield with each index that downloader has sent set to one and the rest set to zero. Downloaders which don't have anything yet may skip the 'bitfield' message.

The first byte of the bitfield corresponds to indices 0 - 7 from high bit to low bit, respectively. The next one , etc.

Spare bits at the end are set to zero. The 'have' message's payload is a single number, the index which that downloader just completed and checked the hash of.

The last two are byte offsets. Length is generally a power of two unless it gets truncated by the end of the file.

They are generally only sent towards the end of a download, during what's called 'endgame mode'. When a download is almost complete, there's a tendency for the last few pieces to all be downloaded off a single hosed modem line, taking a very long time.

To make sure the last few pieces come in quickly, once requests for all pieces a given downloader doesn't have yet are currently pending, it sends requests for everything to everyone it's downloading from.

To keep this from becoming horribly inefficient, it sends cancels to everyone else every time a piece arrives.

Note that they are correlated with request messages implicitly. Downloaders generally download pieces in random order, which does a reasonably good job of keeping them from having a strict subset or superset of the pieces of any of their peers.

Choking is done for several reasons. TCP congestion control behaves very poorly when sending over many connections at once.

Also, choking lets each peer use a tit-for-tat-ish algorithm to ensure that they get a consistent download rate.

The choking algorithm described below is the currently deployed one. It is very important that all new algorithms work well both in a network consisting entirely of themselves and in a network consisting mostly of this one.

There are several criteria a good choking algorithm should meet. It should cap the number of simultaneous uploads for good TCP performance.

It should avoid choking and unchoking quickly, known as 'fibrillation'. It should reciprocate to peers who let it download.

Finally, it should try out unused connections once in a while to find out if they might be better than the currently used ones, known as optimistic unchoking.

The currently deployed choking algorithm avoids fibrillation by only changing who's choked once every ten seconds. It does reciprocation and number of uploads capping by unchoking the four peers which it has the best download rates from and are interested.

Peers which have a better upload rate but aren't interested get unchoked and if they become interested the worst uploader gets choked.

If a downloader has a complete file, it uses its upload rate rather than its download rate to decide who to unchoke.

For optimistic unchoking, at any one time there is a single peer which is unchoked regardless of its upload rate if interested, it counts as one of the four allowed downloaders.

Which peer is optimistically unchoked rotates every 30 seconds. To give them a decent chance of getting a complete piece to upload, new connections are three times as likely to start as the current optimistic unchoke as anywhere else in the rotation.

The BitTorrent Economics Paper outlines some request and choking algorithms clients should implement for optimal performance When developing a new implementation the Wireshark protocol analyzer and its dissectors for bittorrent can be useful to debug and compare with existing ones.

This document has been placed in the public domain. Singkat, Padat, dan Jelas Ingat bahwa perusahaan membutuhkan resume untuk mempercepat waktu mereka melakukan seleksi sebelum interview.

Oleh karena itu, waktu untuk melihat tiap resume juga sangat singkat menit sehingga resume yang kita buat harus benar benar padat dan jelas.

Untuk orang yang sudah mempunyai pengalaman kerja cukup lama, halaman masih bisa ditoleransi tetapi tetap usahakan dalam 1 halaman kecuali anda benar2 memiliki hal khusus yang perlu ditulis sebanyak itu.

Context Action Result CAR framework Ketika saya melihat resume dari beberapa orang dalam menulis pengalaman kerja, biasanya mereka hanya menulis judul dari pekerjaannya dan waktunya.

Contoh: - Sales Representative PT. Grosir Baju Indonesia - Dengan teknik penulisan seperti itu, apa yang bisa dilihat oleh perusahaan.

Perusahaan hanya tahu bahwa kita punya pengalaman menjadi sales representative selama 4 tahun dan sales supervisor selama 2 tahun di PT.

Grosir Baju Indonesia. Tetapi Perusahaan tidak akan pernah bisa melihat nilai lebih yang anda tawarkan. Ketika mereka melihat resume dari kandidat lain mereka akan melihat hal yang sama.

Bandingkan jika anda menulis seperti ini. Contoh Lain pengalaman sebagai programmer : - Membuat program akuntasi dengan cepat.

Telp, E-mail. Untuk Tempat tanggal lahir, biasanya tidak perlu dimasukkan karena orang akan sudah bisa mengetahui dari waktu anda menempuh pendidikan terakhir.

Tidak perlu mencantumkan daftar pendidikan mulai SD. Orang hanya tertarik untuk mengetahui pendidikan terakhir anda.

Untuk mengetahui contoh aplikasi teknik cara membuat resume bisa anda lihat di. Artikelnya sangat bermanfaat, terima kasih Admin untuk sharingnya.

Terima kasih infonya bro, sangat membatu saya.. Terimakasih untuk informasinya. Setidaknya dapat membantu dalam menambah wawasan kita.

Be Careful. Urus Pendirian PT. Urus Pendirian CV. Urus Ijin Prinsip dan perubahan. Urus Rekomendasi Departemen Perindustrian.

Urus Merk Dagang. Urus Ijin ISO Urus Pernikahan di Luar Negeri Beda Agama Dan masih banyak lagi perijinan lainnya untuk informasi lebih lanjut silahkan hubungi kami: atau.

How long did you walk your child to the door for school? Context : Macbeth is talking to the earth, in a soliloquy. Significance : There are several possible meanings to this quote.

If Macbeth is saying that sound will spoil the mood, then that is an example of metatheatre, which in a way, takes away from the gruesome details of the murder, as it somewhat breaks the forth wall and remind the listeners that Macbeth is only a character in a play.

This quote contains apostrophe, as Macbeth is talking to an inanimate object, and personification.

Context : This quote is said by Macbeth to Lady Macbeth. Macbeth had just killed Duncan, and he and Lady Macbeth are discussing what he had done.

Macbeth is horrified and imagines voices that speak of his evildoings. Macbeth will not sleep anymore.

Later, Macbeth refers to himself using his three names, which could symbolize the three stages of his prophesy and his development.

Therefore, Glamis could symbolize his past self, which he was before he killed Duncan, Cawdor could symbolize his current self, which is who killed Duncan, and Macbeth could refer to his future self.

This follows the motif of three, as there were three witches and Hecate was commonly portrayed with three faces.

He feels very guilty, worried, and paranoid, so much as that he believes he will never be able to sleep again.

His sleep will disappear along with his innocence, as sleep is depicted as innocent and good. The witches punish people with lack of sleep, such as when they punished the sailor whose wife was mean with a lack of sleep.

This quote contains many metaphors. Context : This quote is said by Ross to an old man. They exchanging accounts of recent unnatural happenings.

It is the morning after Macbeth killed Duncan. Meaning : According to the clock, it is day, but darkness blocks the sun.

Is it dark because night has become more powerful than day, or because day is hiding its face in shame? People at this time believed that social standing was determined by God, so trying to usurp someone to put yourself in their place goes against the natural order of things.

Kings were believed to also have been chosen by divine powers, so killing and usurping Duncan was especially heinous. The falcon could be representing King Duncan, while the owl, a bird often attributed to death, could represent witchcraft; therefore, this could be saying that witchcraft has killed Duncan.

Also, night, which can represent evil, is taking over day, which is good and supposed to be predominate. This quote contains personification and metaphors.

Context : Macbeth is talking to himself, in a soliloquy. I have ruined my peace for their benefit and given my soul to the devil to make them, the sons on Banquo, kings.

Instead of letting that happen, let fate come to the arena and fight me to the death. Macbeth, who committed evil deeds, will be punished, while Banquo, who has been good and loyal to the king, will be rewarded.

This quote also contains personification and metaphors. Context : Macbeth is speaking to Lady Macbeth. Meaning : We have hurt the snake, but have not killed it.

It is better to be with the dead, whom we have killed and put to rest in order to secure our peace, than to lie with tortured minds in a frenzy of sleeplessness.

He decides that he rather destroy the world than continue to live in fear, which indicates the reign of terror that Scotland will fall under.

Simply choose your favorite and get started. Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of design.

Save time and effort — it does all of the writing and formatting for you. Click the button below and get started!

The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and have been battle tested by job seekers. As this set performed the best, we included them in our resume builder software— and now we are offering them to you for free to download in Microsoft Word format.

Each professional template comes in five colors. Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and start getting more interviews.

Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts. Professional Brick Red. Timeless Dark Blue. Elegant 2. Modern Brick Red. Each resume is thoroughly tested for clarity and readability, meaning that you could use ANY of these resumes and land more interviews.

So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of design. But remember — the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps.

So be sure to modify downloaded files to you get to match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts.

Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses. We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to write a professional profile.

People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for you to download for free.

Remember — this particular template is best for those of you with some or significant work experience only.

Template Library 4: Creative Layouts. Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue.

Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago?

Then it might be time to add some style to your resume! These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search.

Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume.

Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career.

It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. Not Sure Which Template to Choose?

The answer is yes — if you want to. Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats.

The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones.

Creating your own is fine, too. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.

The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired.

We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing.

Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have.

If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt!

If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers.

Best of luck! Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.

I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?

It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications.

How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.

Good luck! Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience.

Good luck with grad school! Hope this helps! Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius. The skill I know is more on the medical.

What template should I use? Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things.

Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Best of luck on the promotion! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Good luck with the summer program. Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market.

Looking for an entry-level position. Good luck with the job hunt. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Good luck with your job search! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor any??

Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Good luck on your project.

Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there.

Afterwards, feel free to choose any format — just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

Good luck landing that internship! Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! There are tons of errors throughout.

See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.

Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison Resume Genius vs.

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The rich are the big gainers in America's new prosperity. Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button.

The gap between rich and poor is bigger than in any other advanced country, but most people are unconcerned. Whereas Europeans fret about the way the economic pie is divided, Americans want to join the rich, not soak them.

Eight out of ten, more than anywhere else, believe that though you may start poor, if you work hard, you can make pots of money.

It is a central part of the American Dream. Thanks to a jump in productivity growth after , America's economy has outpaced other rich countries' for a decade.

In the late s everybody shared in this boom. Though incomes were rising fastest at the top, all workers' wages far outpaced inflation.

But after something changed. The pace of productivity growth has been rising again, but now it seems to be lifting fewer boats.

If you take into account the value of employee benefits, such as health care, the contrast is a little less stark.

But, whatever the measure, it seems clear that only the most skilled workers have seen their pay packets swell much in the current economic expansion.

The fruits of productivity gains have been skewed towards the highest earners, and towards companies, whose profits have reached record levels as a share of GDP.

Even in a country that tolerates inequality, political consequences follow when the rising tide raises too few boats.

The impact of stagnant wages has been dulled by rising house prices, but still most Americans are unhappy about the economy.

The White House professes to be untroubled. He is right, but his claim is misleading, since the median worker—the one in the middle of the income range—has done less well than the average, whose gains are pulled up by the big increases of those at the top.

Privately, some policymakers admit that the recent trends have them worried, and not just because of the congressional elections in November.

The statistics suggest that the economic boom may fade. Americans still head to the shops with gusto, but it is falling savings rates and rising debts made possible by high house prices , not real income growth, that keep their wallets open.

A bust of some kind could lead to widespread political disaffection. Eventually, the country's social fabric could stretch. America is nowhere near Brazil yet see chart 1.

Despite a quarter century during which incomes have drifted ever farther apart, the distribution of wealth has remained remarkably stable.

The richest Americans now earn as big a share of overall income as they did a century ago see chart 2 , but their share of overall wealth is much lower.

Indeed, it has barely budged in the few past decades. The elites in the early years of the 20th century were living off the income generated by their accumulated fortunes.

Today's rich, by and large, are earning their money. The rise of the working rich reinforces America's self-image as the land of opportunity.

But, by some measures, that image is an illusion. In America about half of the income disparities in one generation are reflected in the next.

In Canada and the Nordic countries that proportion is about a fifth. It is not clear whether this sclerosis is increasing: the evidence is mixed.

Many studies suggest that mobility between generations has stayed roughly the same in recent decades, and some suggest it is decreasing.

Even so, ordinary Americans seem to believe that theirs is still a land of opportunity. The proportion who think you can start poor and end up rich has risen 20 percentage points since That helps explain why voters who grumble about the economy have nonetheless failed to respond to class politics.

Americans tend to blame their woes not on rich compatriots but on poor foreigners. More than six out of ten are sceptical of free trade. A new poll in Foreign Affairs suggests that almost nine out of ten worry about their jobs going offshore.

Congressmen reflect their concerns. Though the economy grows, many have become vociferous protectionists. Other rich countries are watching America's experience closely.

For many Europeans, America's brand of capitalism is already far too unequal. Such sceptics will be sure to make much of any sign that the broad middle-class reaps scant benefit from the current productivity boom, setting back the course of European reform even further.

The conventional tale is that the changes of the past few years are simply more steps along paths that began to diverge for rich and poor in the Reagan era.

During the s and s, the halcyon days for America's middle class, productivity boomed and its benefits were broadly shared.

The gap between the lowest and highest earners narrowed. After the oil shocks, productivity growth suddenly slowed. A few years later, at the start of the s, the gap between rich and poor began to widen.

The exact size of that gap depends on how you measure it. Look at wages, the main source of income for most people, and you understate the importance of health care and other benefits.

Look at household income and you need to take into account that the typical household has fallen in size in recent decades, thanks to the growth in single-parent families.

Look at statistics on spending and you find that the gaps between top and bottom have widened less than for income.

But every measure shows that, over the past quarter century, those at the top have done better than those in the middle, who in turn have outpaced those at the bottom.

The gains of productivity growth have become increasingly skewed. If all Americans were set on a ladder with ten rungs, the gap between the wages of those on the ninth rung and those on the first has risen by a third since Economists have long debated why America's income disparities suddenly widened after The consensus is that the main cause was technology, which increased the demand for skilled workers relative to their supply, with freer trade reinforcing the effect.

Some evidence suggests that institutional changes, particularly the weakening of unions, made the going harder for people at the bottom.

Whether these shifts were good or bad depends on your political persuasion. Those on the left lament the gaps, often forgetting that the greater income disparities have created bigger incentives to get an education, which has led to a better trained, more productive workforce.

In their haste to applaud or lament this tale, both sides of the debate tend to overlook some nuances. First, America's rising inequality has not, in fact, been continuous.

The gap between the bottom and the middle—whether in terms of skills, age, job experience or income—did widen sharply in the s.

But during the s, particularly towards the end of the decade, that gap stabilised and, by some measures, even narrowed.

Real wages rose faster for the bottom quarter of workers than for those in the middle. After most people lost ground, but, by many measures, those in the middle of the skills and education ladder have been hit relatively harder than those at the bottom.

People who had some college experience, but no degree, fared worse than high-school dropouts. Some statistics suggest that the annual income of Americans with a college degree has fallen relative to that of high-school graduates for the first time in decades.

So, whereas the s were hardest on the lowest skilled, the s and this decade have squeezed people in the middle.

The one truly continuous trend over the past 25 years has been towards greater concentration of income at the very top. The scale of this shift is not visible from most popular measures of income or wages, as they do not break the distribution down finely enough.

But several recent studies have dissected tax records to investigate what goes on at the very top. The figures are startling.

Put these pieces together and you do not have a picture of ever-widening inequality but of what Lawrence Katz of Harvard University, David Autor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Melissa Kearney of the Brookings Institution call a polarisation of the labour market.

The bottom is no longer falling behind, the top is soaring ahead and the middle is under pressure. Can changes in technology explain this revised picture?

Up to a point. Computers and the internet have reduced the demand for routine jobs that demand only moderate skills, such as the work of bank clerks, while increasing the productivity of the highest-skilled.

Studies in Britain and Germany as well as America show that the pace of job growth since the early s has been slower in occupations that are easy to computerise.

For the most talented and skilled, technology has increased the potential market and thus their productivity.

Top entertainers or sportsmen, for instance, now perform for a global audience. Some economists believe that technology also explains the soaring pay of chief executives.

One argument is that information technology has made top managers more mobile, since it no longer takes years to master the intricacies of any one industry.

As a result, the market for chief executives is bigger and their pay is bid up. Global firms plainly do compete globally for talent: Alcoa's boss is a Brazilian, Sony's chief executive is American and Welsh.

But the scale of America's income concentration at the top, and the fact that no other country has seen such extreme shifts, has sent people searching for other causes.

The typical American chief executive now earns times the average wage, up tenfold from the s. Continental Europe's bosses have seen nothing similar.

Whichever explanation you choose for the signs of growing inequality, none of the changes seems transitory.

The middle rungs of America's labour market are likely to become ever more squeezed. And that squeeze feels worse thanks to another change that has hit the middle class most: greater fluctuations in people's incomes.

The overall economy has become more stable over the past quarter century. America has had only two recessions in the past 20 years, in and , both of which were mild by historical standards.

But life has become more turbulent for firms and people's income now fluctuates much more from one year to the next than it did a generation ago.

Some evidence suggests that the trends in short-term income volatility mirror the underlying wage shifts and may now be hitting the middle class most.

What of the future? It is possible that the benign pattern of the late s will return. The disappointing performance of the Bush era may simply reflect a job market that is weaker than it appears.

Although unemployment is low, at 4. More likely, the structural changes in America's job market that began in the s are now being reinforced by big changes in the global economy.

The integration of China's low-skilled millions and the increased offshoring of services to India and other countries has expanded the global supply of workers.

This has reduced the relative price of labour and raised the returns to capital. That reinforces the income concentration at the top, since most stocks and shares are held by richer people.

More important, globalisation may further fracture the traditional link between skills and wages. As Frank Levy of MIT points out, offshoring and technology work in tandem, since both dampen the demand for jobs that can be reduced to a set of rules or scripts, whether those jobs are for book-keepers or call-centre workers.

Alan Blinder of Princeton, by contrast, says that the demand for skills depends on whether they must be used in person: X -rays taken in Boston may be read by Indians in Bangalore, but offices cannot be cleaned at long distance.

So who will be squeezed and who will not is hard to predict. The number of American service jobs that have shifted offshore is small, some 1m at the most.

And most of those demand few skills, such as operating telephones. Mr Levy points out that only 15 radiologists in India are now reading American X -rays.

But nine out of ten Americans worry about offshoring. That fear may be enough to hold down the wages of college graduates in service industries.

All in all, America's income distribution is likely to continue the trends of the recent past. While those at the top will go on drawing huge salaries, those in the broad middle of the middle class will see their incomes churned.

The political consequences will depend on the pace of change and the economy's general health. With luck, the offshoring of services will happen gradually, allowing time for workers to adapt their skills while strong growth will keep employment high.

But if the economy slows, Americans' scepticism of globalisation is sure to rise. And even their famous tolerance of inequality may reach a limit.

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America's war for hearts and minds. A little politeness goes a long way. Of meat, Mexicans and social mobility. Among the very poor, the American Dream is alive and well.

The public buys its own campaigns, thank you very much. A Democratic candidate in sand-coloured combat boots.

A sudden rush of better news, and not entirely fortuitous. Should the dwellings of the poorest be rebuilt at all? A story especially for those not watching the football.

Violent crime appears to have stopped falling. Democrats have growing worries about the front-runner for the presidential nomination.

But can they. The public sector in Latin America is not spending enough on transport, electricity and water, but. Fidel Castro declares war on corruption.

Roberto Lavagna edges towards a presidential candidacy. The rising sun leaves some Japanese in the shade. An emotional debate about those untouched by the economic recovery.

But the president should survive. Chinese propaganda just isn't what it used to be. The remarkable but little-discussed story of the world's most durable monarch.

A sad case of post-prime-ministerial syndrome. John Howard blocks Canberra's gay marriages. The Palestinians' Hamas government is increasingly besieged.

But it is clinging to power, and to its. The prime minister's good start. The message from Russia and China.

An odd saga with Armenians has mocked the government. Zambia has managed to avoid the crises plaguing its neighbours.

Russian worries about Western encirclement are premature. After the Catalans, Basques and Andalusians want autonomy too.

Locals dream of reopening the frontier between Turkey and Armenia. The ruins of a contested capital are still hostage to geopolitics.

The annual report of the European Union as a club. Labour has focused too much on benefits and not enough on work. The devil in the details.

Not everyone who claims to. How to keep the Tube cool. The world's biggest civil IT project has not yet convinced Britain's doctors. Company pension funds are being saved from destruction.

How changes in the market have revived an ancient Egyptian art. The limits of compassionate conservatism. Philosophical consistency is not David Cameron's priority.

Companies are having to find new ways. Like information on the internet, goods are moving around the world with ever greater efficiency.

How three large and successful companies are using their supply chains to compete. As distinctions between ownership and control become blurred, supply chains are getting more twisted.

With more and more stuff being moved around the globe, efficiency is at a premium. Winging it to the pot. Delivery companies are consolidating.

A courier company goes online. Being too lean and mean is a dangerous thing. Google dominates the lucrative market for web-search, but its rivals are setting out to change that.

A pioneering blogger moves on to the next big thing. Two historic German drugs firms scrap for control of a third. Airbus's jumbo-sized problem threatens the firm's future.

Mittal Steel's chances of taking over Arcelor are improving. A turning point in relations between company owners and bosses?

Doing business in a lawless part of Italy. Wind power has propelled Tulsi Tanti into the ranks of India's corporate titans.

America's Treasury market is unsettled by inflation, in another jittery week for the world's.

The future of the central bank's governor is in doubt. Why it pays to become America's treasury secretary.

A sign that times are good in the overlooked world of accountants. Securitising intellectual property.

Companies are borrowing against their copyrights, trademarks and patents. The World Bank reveals what it thinks of its clients.

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Next in Economic and financial indicators. The Economist commodity price index. Next in Emerging-Market Indicators.

Democracy in America October 6th, Graphic detail October 6th, Prospero October 6th, Erasmus October 6th, Game theory October 6th, International October 6th, Take our weekly news quiz to stay on top of the headlines.

Full Professor W3 and Chair for Biochemistry. Research topic: Molecular signaling mechanisms in aging and aging-related diseases.

Ruhr-University Bochum, Dept. Physiological Chemistry, Jun. Research topic: Structural and biochemical studies on the regulation of signaling enzymes in aging and disease.

Research Topic: Structural studies on intracellular signaling systems. Thesis Advisor: Professor Robert Huber.

Diploma M. Awards and other responsibilities. Molecular signalling mechanisms in aging and disease.

Li, Jun; Bonkowski, Michael S. In: Science Bd. In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Bd. In: PLoS biology Bd.

In: Nature Chemical Biology Bd. Gertz, Melanie; Steegborn, Clemens. Lawrence; Lo, Donald C. In: Cell Chemical Biology Bd.

Fraser; Levin, Lonny R. In: Autophagy Bd. In: Scientific Reports Bd. Suenkel, Benjamin; Steegborn, Clemens.

In: Methods in Enzymology Bd. In: ChemBioChem Bd. Schweizer, Ulrich; Steegborn, Clemens. In: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology Bd.

In: ChemMedChem Bd. In: Proteomics Bd. In: Nature Communications Bd. Suhre, Michael H. In: Molecular Cell Bd. In: Journal of Structural Biology Bd.

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The kidneys then convert calcidiol into the active form of vitamin D, called calcitriol 1,hydroxyvitamin D3. As such, statins and other medications or supplements that inhibit cholesterol synthesis, liver function or kidney function can impair the synthesis of vitamin D.

Here are some key points about vitamin D. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. This section looks at the potential health benefits of vitamin D, from assisting good bone health to possible cancer prevention.

Vitamin D plays a substantial role in the regulation of calcium and maintenance of phosphorus levels in the blood, two factors that are extremely important for maintaining healthy bones.

We need vitamin D to absorb calcium in the intestines and to reclaim calcium that would otherwise be excreted through the kidneys.

Vitamin D deficiency in children can cause rickets. In adults, vitamin D deficiency manifests as osteomalacia or osteoporosis.

Osteomalacia results in poor bone density, muscular weakness and often causes small pseudo fractures of the spine, femur and humerus.

Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease among post-menopausal women and older men. Several observational studies have shown an inverse relationship between blood concentrations of vitamin D in the body and risk of type 2 diabetes.

In type 2 diabetics, insufficient vitamin D levels may have an adverse effect on insulin secretion and glucose tolerance.

Low vitamin D status has also been associated with a higher risk and severity of atopic childhood diseases and allergic diseases, including asthma.

Vitamin D may enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids, making it potentially useful as a supportive therapy for people with steroid-resistant asthma.

Pregnant women who are deficient in vitamin D seem to be at greater risk of developing preeclampsia and needing a cesarean section.

Poor vitamin D status is also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus and bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women. It is also important to note that vitamin D levels that were too high during pregnancy were associated with an increase in food allergy of the child during the first two years of life.

Vitamin D is extremely important for regulating cell growth and for cell-to-cell communication.

Some studies have suggested that calcitriol the hormonally active form of vitamin D can reduce cancer progression by slowing the growth and development of new blood vessels in cancerous tissue, increasing cancer cell death and by reducing cell proliferation and metastases.

Vitamin D has an influence on more than human genes, which can be impaired when D status is suboptimal.

Vitamin D deficiency has also been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension. Researchers at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine found that African-American men living in low sunlight areas are at a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency than European-American men living in the same areas.

Research presented at meeting of the American Chemical Society suggests that taking vitamin D supplements may slow or reverse the progression of low-grade prostate tumors, without the need for surgery or radiation therapy.

Vitamin D supplementation could be a safe and cost-effective treatment strategy for individuals with multiple sclerosis, according to new research published in the journal Neurology.

For patients with chronic heart failure. On the next page we look at the recommended daily intake of vitamin D, food sources that contain it and the potential health risks of consuming vitamin D.

MediLexicon, Intl. For any corrections of factual information, or to contact our editorial team, please see our contact page.

Please note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional.

For more information, please read our terms of use. Please contact us for further details. IN middle and late adulthood all people experience a series of progressive alterations in body composition.

The contraction in lean body mass reflects atrophic processes in skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, spleen, skin, and bone. These structural changes have been considered unavoidable results of aging.

First, after about the age of 30, the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland tends to decline.

Growth hormone secretion can be measured indirectly, however, by measuring the plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor I IGF-I, also known as somatomedin C , which is produced and released by the liver and perhaps other tissues in response to growth hormone.

If the plasma concentration of IGF-I falls below U per liter in older adults, no spontaneous circulating pulses of growth hormone can be detected by currently available radioimmunoassay methods.

These findings suggest that the atrophy of the lean body mass and its component organs and the enlargement of the mass of adipose tissue that are characteristic of the elderly result at least in part from diminished secretion of growth hormone.

In this study we administered biosynthetic human growth hormone for six months to 12 healthy men from 61 to 81 years old whose plasma IGF-I concentrations were below U per liter, and we measured the effects on plasma IGF-I concentration, lean body mass, adipose-tissue mass, skin dermal plus epidermal thickness, regional bone density, and mandibular-height ratio the height of the alveolar ridge divided by the total height of the mandible.

The measurement of the mandible was included to test the hypothesis that the age-related involution of dental bone results in part from the loss of stimulation by growth hormone.

Nine men matched for age and with similar plasma IGF-I concentrations served as controls. Healthy men who were 61 or older and living in the community were recruited through newspaper advertisements followed by an interview.

Entry criteria available from the authors on request included body weight of 90 to percent of the standard for age, the ability to administer growth hormone to oneself subcutaneously, and the absence of indications of major disease.

Ninety-five men who answered the advertisements met criteria that could be ascertained by interview.

Their plasma IGF-I concentrations were then determined twice at an interval of four weeks. Consistent with the results of a previous study, 13 the plasma IGF-I values in these men ranged from to U per liter, with an average of U per liter.

These 33 men were then further evaluated by a medical-history taking, physical examination, differential blood count, urinalysis, blood-chemistry tests, chest radiography, and electrocardiography.

Twenty-six subjects 1 black and 25 white met all the entry criteria and were enrolled in the month protocol summarized in Table 1 Table 1 Schedule of Tests during the Base-Line and Treatment Periods.

The men were seen at regular intervals and tested as shown in Table 1 during the first week of the first, third, and sixth months of the base-line period.

Five men dropped out of the study during these six months four for personal reasons and one because carcinoma of the prostate was detected.

At the beginning of the seventh month, the 21 men who had completed the base-line period were randomly assigned to group 1 growth hormone group or group 2 control group in a ratio of 3 to 2.

The randomization table was generated by a computer program such that in each group of five men, three would be assigned to the growth hormone group and two to the control group.

All 21 men 12 in group 1 and 9 in group 2 completed the treatment period and constitute the study group for this report.

During the first week of the seventh month, the men in group 1 were instructed in the subcutaneous administration of recombinant biosynthetic human growth hormone 2.

The initial dose was 0. A sample of venous blood for plasma IGF-I assay was obtained each month 24 hours after a growth hormone injection.

The men in group 2 received no injections. The schedule of tests for both groups during the treatment period is shown in Table 1.

At the start of the base-line period, the project dietitian instructed each man to follow a diet that furnished 25 to 30 kcal per kilogram.

The distribution of kilocalories among protein, carbohydrate, and fat was approximately 15 percent, 50 percent, and 35 percent, respectively.

At each scheduled visit shown in Table 1. The men were told not to alter their lifestyles including their use of tobacco or alcohol and their level of physical activity during the month study period.

The study protocol was carried out with the informed consent of each subject and with the approval of the human-research committees of the Medical College of Wisconsin, the Chicago Medical School, and the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in North Chicago and Milwaukee.

The methods used to measure each response variable and the locations where the tests were performed are described in Table 1. The interassay coefficients of variation for the response variables were as follows: plasma IGF-I, 7.

P values based on two-tailed, matched-pair t-tests were calculated for the comparisons between the 6-month and month values in group 1 and group 2.

In addition, for each response variable the 6-month value was subtracted from the month value to represent the change in each subject.

P values based on two-tailed, unequal-variance, independent-sample t-tests were then calculated for the comparison of the changes in response variables between groups 1 and 2.

All the men remained healthy, and none had any changes in the results of differential blood count, urinalysis, blood-chemistry profile, chest radiography, electrocardiography, or echocardiography during the month protocol.

Eight of the 12 men in group 1 required no adjustment in their initial dose of growth hormone. Two required an upward adjustment of 25 percent, and two required a downward adjustment of 25 percent.

The mean plasma IGF-I concentration in group 2 remained in the range of to U per liter throughout the base-line and treatment periods.

There was no significant change in weight in either group. In group 1, several response variables had changed significantly after 12 months.

Lean body mass and the average density of the lumbar vertebrae increased by 8. The sum of skin thicknesses at four sites increased 7.

The small average change in lumbar vertebral bone density only 0. The bone density of the radius and proximal femur and the ratio of the height of the alveolar ridge to total mandibular height did not change significantly.

In group 2 none of these variables changed significantly. The 21 men studied were representative of the approximately one third of all men 60 to 80 years old who have plasma IGF-I concentrations of less than U per liter as compared with a range of to U per liter in healthy men 20 to 40 years old.

Furthermore, our entry criteria focused the study on an overtly healthy subgroup of older men. In the absence of obesity, 4 below-normal weight, 20 or liver disease, 21 a plasma IGF-I concentration of less than U per liter in older men generally signifies that they secrete very little growth hormone.

We did not do this, but Ho et al. Most of the IGF-I plasma is bound to these proteins, but their concentrations vary little in healthy people who eat a normal diet.

In the 12 men in group 1, initially low plasma IGF-I concentrations were raised to the normal range for young adult men by the dose of growth hormone administered, with no evidence of tachyphylaxis or hormone resistance.

The dose, approximately 0. We conclude that in aging men with low plasma IGF-I concentrations hepatic responsiveness to human growth hormone is not impaired, and the decline in plasma IGF-I concentrations in such men results from growth hormone deficiency rather than growth hormone resistance.

The increase in plasma IGF-I levels that occurs when growth hormone is administered to children with growth hormone deficiency reflects not only augmented hepatic production of IGF-I, but also increased production of one of the binding proteins that transport IGF-I.

At the beginning of our study, adverse reactions to human growth hormone were thought to be unlikely because physiologic doses were being used.

Furthermore, similar or larger doses have not caused undesired reactions in children or young adults. The magnitude of the increases in lean body mass and the decreases in adipose-tissue mass 8.

Until now, the evidence for such a conclusion came only from short-term nitrogen-balance experiments. Salomon et al.

In rodents, the increase in lean body mass in response to growth hormone is due to increases in the volume of skeletal muscle, skin, liver, kidney, and spleen.

The reduction in adipose-tissue mass when children with growth hormone deficiency are treated with human growth hormone is associated with a redistribution of adipose tissue from abdominal to peripheral areas.

Biosynthetic human growth hormone had no detectable effect on the bone density of the radius or proximal femur in the aging men, but it increased the density of the lumbar vertebrae by about 1.

Although the decrease in bone density with advancing age in men may be due in part to diminished secretion of growth hormone, 1.

A similar interpretation applies to the lack of increase in the mandibular-height ratio. What organs are responsible for the increase in lean body mass, and do their functional capacities change as well?

Only when such questions are answered can the possible benefits of human growth hormone in the elderly be explored.

Since atrophy of muscle and skin contributes to the frailty of older people, the potential benefits of growth hormone merit continuing attention and investigation.

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Get rid of your headache and let us help you improve your grades. Health Promotion in Nursing Practice A BitTorrent file distribution consists of these entities: There are ideally many end users for a single file.

Start running a tracker or, more likely, have one running already. Start running an ordinary web server, such as apache, or have one already.

Associate the extension. Generate a metainfo. Put the metainfo file on the web server. Link to the metainfo.

Start a downloader which already has the complete file the 'origin'. Install BitTorrent or have done so already. Surf the web.

Click on a link to a. Select where to save the file locally, or select a partial download to resume. Wait for download to complete.

Tell downloader to exit it keeps uploading until this happens. Metainfo files also known as. All strings in a. The name key maps to a UTF-8 encoded string which is the suggested name to save the file or directory as.

It is purely advisory. For the purposes of transfer, files are split into fixed-size pieces which are all the same length except for possibly the last one which may be truncated.

It is to be subdivided into strings of length 20, each of which is the SHA1 hash of the piece at the corresponding index.

There is also a key length or a key files , but not both or neither. If length is present then the download represents a single file, otherwise it represents a set of files which go in a directory structure.

In the single file case, length maps to the length of the file in bytes. For the purposes of the other keys, the multi-file case is treated as only having a single file by concatenating the files in the order they appear in the files list.

The files list is the value files maps to, and is a list of dictionaries containing the following keys: length - The length of the file, in bytes.

In the single file case, the name key is the name of a file, in the muliple file case, it's the name of a directory. Tracker GET requests have the following keys: The 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file.

This value will almost certainly have to be escaped. Note that this is a substring of the metainfo file. The info-hash must be the hash of the encoded form as found in the.

Conversely that means clients must either reject invalid metainfo files or extract the substring directly.

They must not perform a decode-encode roundtrip on invalid data. Each downloader generates its own id at random at the start of a new download.

This value will also almost certainly have to be escaped. Generally used for the origin if it's on the same machine as the tracker.

Common behavior is for a downloader to try to listen on port and if that port is taken try , then , etc. Note that this can't be computed from downloaded and the file length since it might be a resume, and there's a chance that some of the downloaded data failed an integrity check and had to be re-downloaded.

If not present, this is one of the announcements done at regular intervals. An announcement using started is sent when a download first begins, and one using completed is sent when the download is complete.

No completed is sent if the file was complete when started. Downloaders send an announcement using stopped when they cease downloading.

Tracker responses are bencoded dictionaries. If a tracker response has a key failure reason , then that maps to a human readable string which explains why the query failed, and no other keys are required.

Otherwise, it must have two keys: interval , which maps to the number of seconds the downloader should wait between regular rerequests, and peers.

Note that downloaders may rerequest on nonscheduled times if an event happens or they need more peers.

More commonly is that trackers return a compact representation of the peer list, see BEP If you want to make any extensions to metainfo files or tracker queries, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure that all extensions are done compatibly.

It is common to announce over a UDP tracker protocol as well. Peer connections are symmetrical. Messages sent in both directions look the same, and data can flow in either direction.

The peer protocol refers to pieces of the file by index as described in the metainfo file, starting at zero. When a peer finishes downloading a piece and checks that the hash matches, it announces that it has that piece to all of its peers.

Connections contain two bits of state on either end: choked or not, and interested or not. Choking is a notification that no data will be sent until unchoking happens.

The reasoning and common techniques behind choking are explained later in this document. Data transfer takes place whenever one side is interested and the other side is not choking.

Interest state must be kept up to date at all times - whenever a downloader doesn't have something they currently would ask a peer for in unchoked, they must express lack of interest, despite being choked.

Implementing this properly is tricky, but makes it possible for downloaders to know which peers will start downloading immediately if unchoked.

Connections start out choked and not interested. When data is being transferred, downloaders should keep several piece requests queued up at once in order to get good TCP performance this is called 'pipelining'.

On the other side, requests which can't be written out to the TCP buffer immediately should be queued up in memory rather than kept in an application-level network buffer, so they can all be thrown out when a choke happens.

The peer wire protocol consists of a handshake followed by a never-ending stream of length-prefixed messages. The handshake starts with character ninteen decimal followed by the string 'BitTorrent protocol'.

The leading character is a length prefix, put there in the hope that other new protocols may do the same and thus be trivially distinguishable from each other.

All later integers sent in the protocol are encoded as four bytes big-endian. After the fixed headers come eight reserved bytes, which are all zero in all current implementations.

If you wish to extend the protocol using these bytes, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure all extensions are done compatibly.

Next comes the 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file. If both sides don't send the same value, they sever the connection.

The one possible exception is if a downloader wants to do multiple downloads over a single port, they may wait for incoming connections to give a download hash first, and respond with the same one if it's in their list.

After the download hash comes the byte peer id which is reported in tracker requests and contained in peer lists in tracker responses.

If the receiving side's peer id doesn't match the one the initiating side expects, it severs the connection. That's it for handshaking, next comes an alternating stream of length prefixes and messages.

Messages of length zero are keepalives, and ignored. Keepalives are generally sent once every two minutes, but note that timeouts can be done much more quickly when data is expected.

All non-keepalive messages start with a single byte which gives their type. The possible values are: 'choke', 'unchoke', 'interested', and 'not interested' have no payload.

Its payload is a bitfield with each index that downloader has sent set to one and the rest set to zero. Downloaders which don't have anything yet may skip the 'bitfield' message.

The first byte of the bitfield corresponds to indices 0 - 7 from high bit to low bit, respectively. The next one , etc.

Spare bits at the end are set to zero. The 'have' message's payload is a single number, the index which that downloader just completed and checked the hash of.

The last two are byte offsets. Length is generally a power of two unless it gets truncated by the end of the file.

They are generally only sent towards the end of a download, during what's called 'endgame mode'. When a download is almost complete, there's a tendency for the last few pieces to all be downloaded off a single hosed modem line, taking a very long time.

To make sure the last few pieces come in quickly, once requests for all pieces a given downloader doesn't have yet are currently pending, it sends requests for everything to everyone it's downloading from.

To keep this from becoming horribly inefficient, it sends cancels to everyone else every time a piece arrives.

Note that they are correlated with request messages implicitly. Downloaders generally download pieces in random order, which does a reasonably good job of keeping them from having a strict subset or superset of the pieces of any of their peers.

Choking is done for several reasons. TCP congestion control behaves very poorly when sending over many connections at once.

Also, choking lets each peer use a tit-for-tat-ish algorithm to ensure that they get a consistent download rate.

The choking algorithm described below is the currently deployed one. It is very important that all new algorithms work well both in a network consisting entirely of themselves and in a network consisting mostly of this one.

There are several criteria a good choking algorithm should meet. It should cap the number of simultaneous uploads for good TCP performance.

It should avoid choking and unchoking quickly, known as 'fibrillation'. It should reciprocate to peers who let it download.

Finally, it should try out unused connections once in a while to find out if they might be better than the currently used ones, known as optimistic unchoking.

The currently deployed choking algorithm avoids fibrillation by only changing who's choked once every ten seconds. It does reciprocation and number of uploads capping by unchoking the four peers which it has the best download rates from and are interested.

Peers which have a better upload rate but aren't interested get unchoked and if they become interested the worst uploader gets choked.

If a downloader has a complete file, it uses its upload rate rather than its download rate to decide who to unchoke.

For optimistic unchoking, at any one time there is a single peer which is unchoked regardless of its upload rate if interested, it counts as one of the four allowed downloaders.

Which peer is optimistically unchoked rotates every 30 seconds. To give them a decent chance of getting a complete piece to upload, new connections are three times as likely to start as the current optimistic unchoke as anywhere else in the rotation.

The BitTorrent Economics Paper outlines some request and choking algorithms clients should implement for optimal performance When developing a new implementation the Wireshark protocol analyzer and its dissectors for bittorrent can be useful to debug and compare with existing ones.

This document has been placed in the public domain. Singkat, Padat, dan Jelas Ingat bahwa perusahaan membutuhkan resume untuk mempercepat waktu mereka melakukan seleksi sebelum interview.

Oleh karena itu, waktu untuk melihat tiap resume juga sangat singkat menit sehingga resume yang kita buat harus benar benar padat dan jelas.

Untuk orang yang sudah mempunyai pengalaman kerja cukup lama, halaman masih bisa ditoleransi tetapi tetap usahakan dalam 1 halaman kecuali anda benar2 memiliki hal khusus yang perlu ditulis sebanyak itu.

Context Action Result CAR framework Ketika saya melihat resume dari beberapa orang dalam menulis pengalaman kerja, biasanya mereka hanya menulis judul dari pekerjaannya dan waktunya.

Contoh: - Sales Representative PT. Grosir Baju Indonesia - Dengan teknik penulisan seperti itu, apa yang bisa dilihat oleh perusahaan.

Perusahaan hanya tahu bahwa kita punya pengalaman menjadi sales representative selama 4 tahun dan sales supervisor selama 2 tahun di PT.

Grosir Baju Indonesia. Tetapi Perusahaan tidak akan pernah bisa melihat nilai lebih yang anda tawarkan.

Ketika mereka melihat resume dari kandidat lain mereka akan melihat hal yang sama. Bandingkan jika anda menulis seperti ini.

Contoh Lain pengalaman sebagai programmer : - Membuat program akuntasi dengan cepat. Telp, E-mail. Untuk Tempat tanggal lahir, biasanya tidak perlu dimasukkan karena orang akan sudah bisa mengetahui dari waktu anda menempuh pendidikan terakhir.

Tidak perlu mencantumkan daftar pendidikan mulai SD. Orang hanya tertarik untuk mengetahui pendidikan terakhir anda.

Untuk mengetahui contoh aplikasi teknik cara membuat resume bisa anda lihat di. Artikelnya sangat bermanfaat, terima kasih Admin untuk sharingnya.

Terima kasih infonya bro, sangat membatu saya.. Terimakasih untuk informasinya. Setidaknya dapat membantu dalam menambah wawasan kita.

Be Careful. Urus Pendirian PT. Urus Pendirian CV. Urus Ijin Prinsip dan perubahan. Urus Rekomendasi Departemen Perindustrian.

Urus Merk Dagang. Urus Ijin ISO Urus Pernikahan di Luar Negeri Beda Agama Dan masih banyak lagi perijinan lainnya untuk informasi lebih lanjut silahkan hubungi kami: atau.

How long did you walk your child to the door for school? Context : Macbeth is talking to the earth, in a soliloquy.

Significance : There are several possible meanings to this quote. If Macbeth is saying that sound will spoil the mood, then that is an example of metatheatre, which in a way, takes away from the gruesome details of the murder, as it somewhat breaks the forth wall and remind the listeners that Macbeth is only a character in a play.

This quote contains apostrophe, as Macbeth is talking to an inanimate object, and personification. Context : This quote is said by Macbeth to Lady Macbeth.

Macbeth had just killed Duncan, and he and Lady Macbeth are discussing what he had done. Macbeth is horrified and imagines voices that speak of his evildoings.

Macbeth will not sleep anymore. Later, Macbeth refers to himself using his three names, which could symbolize the three stages of his prophesy and his development.

Therefore, Glamis could symbolize his past self, which he was before he killed Duncan, Cawdor could symbolize his current self, which is who killed Duncan, and Macbeth could refer to his future self.

This follows the motif of three, as there were three witches and Hecate was commonly portrayed with three faces. He feels very guilty, worried, and paranoid, so much as that he believes he will never be able to sleep again.

His sleep will disappear along with his innocence, as sleep is depicted as innocent and good. The witches punish people with lack of sleep, such as when they punished the sailor whose wife was mean with a lack of sleep.

This quote contains many metaphors. Context : This quote is said by Ross to an old man. They exchanging accounts of recent unnatural happenings.

It is the morning after Macbeth killed Duncan. Meaning : According to the clock, it is day, but darkness blocks the sun. Is it dark because night has become more powerful than day, or because day is hiding its face in shame?

People at this time believed that social standing was determined by God, so trying to usurp someone to put yourself in their place goes against the natural order of things.

Kings were believed to also have been chosen by divine powers, so killing and usurping Duncan was especially heinous.

The falcon could be representing King Duncan, while the owl, a bird often attributed to death, could represent witchcraft; therefore, this could be saying that witchcraft has killed Duncan.

Also, night, which can represent evil, is taking over day, which is good and supposed to be predominate.

This quote contains personification and metaphors. Context : Macbeth is talking to himself, in a soliloquy. I have ruined my peace for their benefit and given my soul to the devil to make them, the sons on Banquo, kings.

Instead of letting that happen, let fate come to the arena and fight me to the death. Macbeth, who committed evil deeds, will be punished, while Banquo, who has been good and loyal to the king, will be rewarded.

This quote also contains personification and metaphors. Context : Macbeth is speaking to Lady Macbeth. Meaning : We have hurt the snake, but have not killed it.

It is better to be with the dead, whom we have killed and put to rest in order to secure our peace, than to lie with tortured minds in a frenzy of sleeplessness.

He decides that he rather destroy the world than continue to live in fear, which indicates the reign of terror that Scotland will fall under.

Simply choose your favorite and get started. Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of design.

Save time and effort — it does all of the writing and formatting for you. Click the button below and get started! The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and have been battle tested by job seekers.

As this set performed the best, we included them in our resume builder software— and now we are offering them to you for free to download in Microsoft Word format.

Each professional template comes in five colors. Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and start getting more interviews.

Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts. Professional Brick Red. Timeless Dark Blue. Elegant 2. Modern Brick Red.

Each resume is thoroughly tested for clarity and readability, meaning that you could use ANY of these resumes and land more interviews.

So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of design. But remember — the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps.

So be sure to modify downloaded files to you get to match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts.

Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses.

We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to write a professional profile. People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for you to download for free.

Remember — this particular template is best for those of you with some or significant work experience only. Template Library 4: Creative Layouts.

Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue.

Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago?

Then it might be time to add some style to your resume! These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search.

Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume.

Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career.

It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster.

Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats.

The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there.

Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones.

Creating your own is fine, too. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.

The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired.

We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing.

Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume.

Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.

Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each.

The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?

It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. How would I write that on my resume?

Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?

I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.

Good luck! Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience.

Good luck with grad school! Hope this helps! Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.

The skill I know is more on the medical. What template should I use? Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service.

So i want to highlight the other things. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Best of luck on the promotion!

What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Good luck with the summer program. Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market.

Looking for an entry-level position. Good luck with the job hunt. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Good luck with your job search! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor any??

Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Good luck on your project.

Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there.

Afterwards, feel free to choose any format — just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

Good luck landing that internship! Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy!

There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.

Resume Builder Comparison Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders?

Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

The rich are the big gainers in America's new prosperity. Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button.

The gap between rich and poor is bigger than in any other advanced country, but most people are unconcerned. Whereas Europeans fret about the way the economic pie is divided, Americans want to join the rich, not soak them.

Eight out of ten, more than anywhere else, believe that though you may start poor, if you work hard, you can make pots of money.

It is a central part of the American Dream. Thanks to a jump in productivity growth after , America's economy has outpaced other rich countries' for a decade.

In the late s everybody shared in this boom. Though incomes were rising fastest at the top, all workers' wages far outpaced inflation.

But after something changed. The pace of productivity growth has been rising again, but now it seems to be lifting fewer boats.

If you take into account the value of employee benefits, such as health care, the contrast is a little less stark. But, whatever the measure, it seems clear that only the most skilled workers have seen their pay packets swell much in the current economic expansion.

The fruits of productivity gains have been skewed towards the highest earners, and towards companies, whose profits have reached record levels as a share of GDP.

Even in a country that tolerates inequality, political consequences follow when the rising tide raises too few boats. The impact of stagnant wages has been dulled by rising house prices, but still most Americans are unhappy about the economy.

The White House professes to be untroubled. He is right, but his claim is misleading, since the median worker—the one in the middle of the income range—has done less well than the average, whose gains are pulled up by the big increases of those at the top.

Privately, some policymakers admit that the recent trends have them worried, and not just because of the congressional elections in November.

The statistics suggest that the economic boom may fade. Americans still head to the shops with gusto, but it is falling savings rates and rising debts made possible by high house prices , not real income growth, that keep their wallets open.

A bust of some kind could lead to widespread political disaffection. Eventually, the country's social fabric could stretch.

America is nowhere near Brazil yet see chart 1. Despite a quarter century during which incomes have drifted ever farther apart, the distribution of wealth has remained remarkably stable.

The richest Americans now earn as big a share of overall income as they did a century ago see chart 2 , but their share of overall wealth is much lower.

Indeed, it has barely budged in the few past decades. The elites in the early years of the 20th century were living off the income generated by their accumulated fortunes.

Today's rich, by and large, are earning their money. The rise of the working rich reinforces America's self-image as the land of opportunity.

But, by some measures, that image is an illusion. In America about half of the income disparities in one generation are reflected in the next.

In Canada and the Nordic countries that proportion is about a fifth. It is not clear whether this sclerosis is increasing: the evidence is mixed.

Many studies suggest that mobility between generations has stayed roughly the same in recent decades, and some suggest it is decreasing.

Even so, ordinary Americans seem to believe that theirs is still a land of opportunity. The proportion who think you can start poor and end up rich has risen 20 percentage points since That helps explain why voters who grumble about the economy have nonetheless failed to respond to class politics.

Americans tend to blame their woes not on rich compatriots but on poor foreigners. More than six out of ten are sceptical of free trade.

A new poll in Foreign Affairs suggests that almost nine out of ten worry about their jobs going offshore. Congressmen reflect their concerns.

Though the economy grows, many have become vociferous protectionists. Other rich countries are watching America's experience closely.

For many Europeans, America's brand of capitalism is already far too unequal. Such sceptics will be sure to make much of any sign that the broad middle-class reaps scant benefit from the current productivity boom, setting back the course of European reform even further.

The conventional tale is that the changes of the past few years are simply more steps along paths that began to diverge for rich and poor in the Reagan era.

During the s and s, the halcyon days for America's middle class, productivity boomed and its benefits were broadly shared.

The gap between the lowest and highest earners narrowed. After the oil shocks, productivity growth suddenly slowed. A few years later, at the start of the s, the gap between rich and poor began to widen.

The exact size of that gap depends on how you measure it. Look at wages, the main source of income for most people, and you understate the importance of health care and other benefits.

Look at household income and you need to take into account that the typical household has fallen in size in recent decades, thanks to the growth in single-parent families.

Look at statistics on spending and you find that the gaps between top and bottom have widened less than for income.

But every measure shows that, over the past quarter century, those at the top have done better than those in the middle, who in turn have outpaced those at the bottom.

The gains of productivity growth have become increasingly skewed. If all Americans were set on a ladder with ten rungs, the gap between the wages of those on the ninth rung and those on the first has risen by a third since Economists have long debated why America's income disparities suddenly widened after The consensus is that the main cause was technology, which increased the demand for skilled workers relative to their supply, with freer trade reinforcing the effect.

Some evidence suggests that institutional changes, particularly the weakening of unions, made the going harder for people at the bottom.

Whether these shifts were good or bad depends on your political persuasion. Those on the left lament the gaps, often forgetting that the greater income disparities have created bigger incentives to get an education, which has led to a better trained, more productive workforce.

In their haste to applaud or lament this tale, both sides of the debate tend to overlook some nuances.

First, America's rising inequality has not, in fact, been continuous. The gap between the bottom and the middle—whether in terms of skills, age, job experience or income—did widen sharply in the s.

But during the s, particularly towards the end of the decade, that gap stabilised and, by some measures, even narrowed.

Real wages rose faster for the bottom quarter of workers than for those in the middle. After most people lost ground, but, by many measures, those in the middle of the skills and education ladder have been hit relatively harder than those at the bottom.

People who had some college experience, but no degree, fared worse than high-school dropouts.

Some statistics suggest that the annual income of Americans with a college degree has fallen relative to that of high-school graduates for the first time in decades.

So, whereas the s were hardest on the lowest skilled, the s and this decade have squeezed people in the middle. The one truly continuous trend over the past 25 years has been towards greater concentration of income at the very top.

The scale of this shift is not visible from most popular measures of income or wages, as they do not break the distribution down finely enough.

But several recent studies have dissected tax records to investigate what goes on at the very top.

The figures are startling. Put these pieces together and you do not have a picture of ever-widening inequality but of what Lawrence Katz of Harvard University, David Autor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Melissa Kearney of the Brookings Institution call a polarisation of the labour market.

The bottom is no longer falling behind, the top is soaring ahead and the middle is under pressure. Can changes in technology explain this revised picture?

Up to a point. Computers and the internet have reduced the demand for routine jobs that demand only moderate skills, such as the work of bank clerks, while increasing the productivity of the highest-skilled.

Studies in Britain and Germany as well as America show that the pace of job growth since the early s has been slower in occupations that are easy to computerise.

For the most talented and skilled, technology has increased the potential market and thus their productivity.

Top entertainers or sportsmen, for instance, now perform for a global audience. Some economists believe that technology also explains the soaring pay of chief executives.

One argument is that information technology has made top managers more mobile, since it no longer takes years to master the intricacies of any one industry.

As a result, the market for chief executives is bigger and their pay is bid up. Global firms plainly do compete globally for talent: Alcoa's boss is a Brazilian, Sony's chief executive is American and Welsh.

But the scale of America's income concentration at the top, and the fact that no other country has seen such extreme shifts, has sent people searching for other causes.

The typical American chief executive now earns times the average wage, up tenfold from the s. Continental Europe's bosses have seen nothing similar.

Whichever explanation you choose for the signs of growing inequality, none of the changes seems transitory.

The middle rungs of America's labour market are likely to become ever more squeezed. And that squeeze feels worse thanks to another change that has hit the middle class most: greater fluctuations in people's incomes.

The overall economy has become more stable over the past quarter century. America has had only two recessions in the past 20 years, in and , both of which were mild by historical standards.

But life has become more turbulent for firms and people's income now fluctuates much more from one year to the next than it did a generation ago.

Some evidence suggests that the trends in short-term income volatility mirror the underlying wage shifts and may now be hitting the middle class most.

What of the future? It is possible that the benign pattern of the late s will return. The disappointing performance of the Bush era may simply reflect a job market that is weaker than it appears.

Although unemployment is low, at 4. More likely, the structural changes in America's job market that began in the s are now being reinforced by big changes in the global economy.

The integration of China's low-skilled millions and the increased offshoring of services to India and other countries has expanded the global supply of workers.

This has reduced the relative price of labour and raised the returns to capital. That reinforces the income concentration at the top, since most stocks and shares are held by richer people.

More important, globalisation may further fracture the traditional link between skills and wages. As Frank Levy of MIT points out, offshoring and technology work in tandem, since both dampen the demand for jobs that can be reduced to a set of rules or scripts, whether those jobs are for book-keepers or call-centre workers.

Alan Blinder of Princeton, by contrast, says that the demand for skills depends on whether they must be used in person: X -rays taken in Boston may be read by Indians in Bangalore, but offices cannot be cleaned at long distance.

So who will be squeezed and who will not is hard to predict. The number of American service jobs that have shifted offshore is small, some 1m at the most.

And most of those demand few skills, such as operating telephones. Mr Levy points out that only 15 radiologists in India are now reading American X -rays.

But nine out of ten Americans worry about offshoring. That fear may be enough to hold down the wages of college graduates in service industries.

All in all, America's income distribution is likely to continue the trends of the recent past. While those at the top will go on drawing huge salaries, those in the broad middle of the middle class will see their incomes churned.

The political consequences will depend on the pace of change and the economy's general health. With luck, the offshoring of services will happen gradually, allowing time for workers to adapt their skills while strong growth will keep employment high.

But if the economy slows, Americans' scepticism of globalisation is sure to rise. And even their famous tolerance of inequality may reach a limit.

Inequality and the American Dream. The world's most impressive economic machine needs a little adjusting.

A hidden industry has changed all our lives; but some companies are operating rather close to the. The battle for Arcelor is about more than steel.

It is time to look rationally at the idea of resuming whaling. There is no easy path towards peace, but Hamas cannot yet be wished away.

America's war for hearts and minds. A little politeness goes a long way. Of meat, Mexicans and social mobility. Among the very poor, the American Dream is alive and well.

The public buys its own campaigns, thank you very much. A Democratic candidate in sand-coloured combat boots. A sudden rush of better news, and not entirely fortuitous.

Should the dwellings of the poorest be rebuilt at all? A story especially for those not watching the football. Violent crime appears to have stopped falling.

Democrats have growing worries about the front-runner for the presidential nomination.

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